Tuesday, November 12, 2019


                 To solve this situation, we begin by a closer look at the details of geoengineering. Geoengineering can be divided into broad categories: Carbon Dioxide Removal(CDR) and Solar Radiation Management(SRM). CDR consists of several interwoven terms and methods such as CO2 air capture, Afforestation/Reforestation, Ocean fertilization, avoiding deforestation, algae-coated buildings, and biochar. On the other hand, SRM includes several terms and steps like in the case of stratospheric aerosols, solar reflectors in space, enhanced surface brightness, roads-rooves-pavements, enhanced cloud brightness, and planting light-leaf species.
                In the first place, one point which is believed to be absolutely pivotal is the fact that geoengineering should be implemented to reduce global warming immediately because the world is warming, this much people know and how much it will warm in the following decades. There is a wide discussion in many parts of the world today as to this issue because it is an undeniable fact that global warming affects several factors adversely in the four corners of the world. It is obvious that global warming has done a lot of damage to; but not for people. That’s why techniques of geoengineering are not only good for people but also good for the animal kingdom due to the  direct impact on nature for example. In addition, it is important to emphasize that geoengineering is affordable and fast-acting and it requires less cooperation and altruism.
                When it comes to the second point, at the heart of the matter lies another contributing factor: geoengineering should be implemented to prevent a potential humanitarian crisis and due to human rights. It should not be forgotten that people have some rights such as the right to land, the right to self-determination, the right to life, and the right to a safe and healthy environment. If the harmful effects of global warming continue to increase, the environmental side effects will be irreversible and people will not be able to find  land and nutrition for eating. That is to say, they will not be able to fulfill their needs. Some African countries can be shown as the best instance of this, due to the fact that they suffer from droughts, starvation, lack of security and infectious diseases. In addition, due to these negative effects and insufficiencies, people will face a potential humanitarian crisis in the four corners of the world. According to research carried out by elite universities and scientists, Small Island Developing States(SIDS) will be seen in the coming decades like in Bangladesh. It is not wrong to say that it is not possible to live  because of the population density of SIDS. As a result of this, it is an undeniable fact that people will face a humanitarian crisis.

On the other hand, some people claim that geoengineering is complex and controversial, besides, requires negotiation and cooperation among governments, scientists, civil society, and the private sector. However, these claims are not acceptable because it is important to emphasize that the negative effects of global warming are expected to intensify in the following decade and the detrimental effects will affect the entire world. Therefore, people have to take precautions to prevent these negative effects of global warming and implement techniques of geoengineering.
All that has been said raises the issue of whether geoengineering is a solution to counteract the negative effects of global warming. Although some people claim that geoengineering is complex and controversial and has different requirements, it seems that geoengineering is the best solution to prevent the negative effects of global warming. Otherwise, these detrimental impacts are expected to intensify in the following decade. No matter what happens, nothing is more important than human life, so it should be given due importance and it should not be endangered. Geoengineering is an intervention in nature in some sense but it has a role to play in shaping the future and society. Nature is an indispensable factor for humanity due to the fact that as can be seen above, it is related to everything in the world.

Sunday, October 20, 2019


The modern world is a highly competitive place where millions join the race to the top each passing day. The struggle to succeed involves a lot of hardship and misery, which has caused the fear of the future to become ingrained in parents. This fear coupled with the desire to make the child’s path up the greasy pole as smooth as possible is leading modern parents to focus on schooling to the exclusion of all else. This tunnel vision parents are trapped in is highly detrimental, is doing untold damage and should be discouraged no matter what.

The gravity of the problem of excessive emphasis on formal education is best exemplified by the situation in South Korea. Here children go to school at the crack of dawn for a full day and then head off to ‘hogwons’, that is to say private courses, where they have to do tests and solve problems. They are not allowed to go to bed until they have managed to solve all the problems correctly. The result is that they often don’t get to bed until midnight. Such kids are known to have committed suicide.  That this attitude to raising children and preparing them for the future is akin to torture goes without saying. Not being able to see the damage done to the child’s physical and psychological development is inexcusable.

A child who studies to the exclusion of all else will miss out on a lot of socialization and thus the acquisition of numerous social skills which will also have an undeniable role to play in determining his future success. These social skills can only be learnt through interaction with others in a social setting not through interaction with tests. It is a wonder such children are still able to speak their native language as they don’t even get practice in that. The educational value of the unending battle with tests that continue into the night is also highly doubtful as most educators should know full well. Concentration levels will drop as exhaustion sets in and hunger takes its toll. Couple this with lack of restorative sleep, unhealthy eating habits and minimal physical activity over a long period of time and the child’s growth and development will be stunted.  This is not the whole story however; the damage done to the child’s mental well being also needs to be considered.

A child who is unable to escape the grip of formal schooling will inevitably suffer psychological problems. He may be plagued with lack of confidence as he stays up well into the night completing schoolwork. He may become shy and withdrawn as he has minimal contact with his peers. He may not grow to be street-wise due to insufficient contact with the outside world. He may suffer from fear of failure, be plagued by guilt and be prone to nightmares. Conversely, he may become an inhuman zombie in whom all the qualities that make him human have been suppressed. Parents need to think long and hard about the path they are taking when deciding on the best way to raise their children. The system they are bent on applying amounts to child abuse.

Some may say that a good education is the only way to get ahead in life but a quick look at college application criteria will show that grades are not the only thing being sought by good universities. Club activities, individual initiatives, hobbies and interests and the like are also required. Incorporating all these into the child’s life and providing a more rounded upbringing is more likely to lead to future success as well as good physical and mental health. Parents should wish their children to be successful and happy as well. What is the point of having all the wealth in the world when you can’t relax enough to enjoy it?

A child isn’t the latest type of software; he is a human being with human needs which should not be ignored. Raising a child involves addressing physical and psychological needs. It also involves providing a loving home environment and time with peers. Only focusing on cognitive development to the exclusion of all else will do untold damage to the child and should thus be categorized as a crime.

Saturday, September 14, 2019


     Our brain is considered a computer. It records data and data is kept by our brain without experiencing any changes. Actually, the brain stores memories that we think never change. When we remember something, our brain revives them. However, we may not always remember events like the first time. That's why, our memories are unreliable. There are some reasons why memories are not reliable.
      First of all, one of the main reasons for an unreliable memory is that when we want to recall our memories, we reconstruct the events. We are facing a lot of events every day. The new situations which we encounter cause us to reshape the events. In addition, our memories are affected by our present expectations and our current knowledge and thoughts. Thus, while we are remembering  the past events, we can mix the present and the past. Therefore, our memories can deceive us and they may be unreliable.
       Secondly, another reason for unreliable memories is that we usually suppress memories that are painful and damaging to our self-esteem. We have a tendency to remember pleasant memories because painful memories torment us when we revisit them. Therefore, we may not say that memories are completely true and reliable. Moreover, we are open to external factors such as false memories. We are open to believing in unexperienced events. For example, when a person says a wild dog was chasing you in your childhood, you believe the person who tells that story. That's to say, you can be misled. That's why, our memories are unreliable.
       All in all, our brain is not a machine which preserves the events and memories. Our brain keeps the memories in mind and each time we recall something, these memories come out changed. Our brain reconstructs them. Therefore, our memories are unreliable.
                                                                                                  Seher Çakmar

Friday, August 23, 2019


                Over the past 50 or 60 years, technology has brought significant changes to our lives. Yet there remains some disagreement as to whether technology needs to be ethical. To begin with, ethics is generally defined as a theoretical discipline that reflects on the good or responsible actions of human beings. It is claimed that there is no room for ethics; existing technology should create machines as intelligent as humans and use them  in every area. However, some people argue that technology has a responsibility to society to be ethical because new technological developments may harm people.  Moreover, trust in the tech world continues to erode due to the increase in the vulnerability to hacking and the proliferation of misinformation via Google and Facebook.
                First of all, one point which is believed to be absolutely pivotal is the fact that new technological developments may harm people. It is important to emphasize that there are some adverse effects of technology on human life, so the adverse effects of technology are widely debated. The debate on using technology such as gene editing techniques on the Designer Baby Experiment in China, for example, has become a hot-button political issue, involving scientists, policy-makers, politicians and religious groups because how ethical is it to use technology to improve human species? Therefore, the adverse effects of technology are an undeniable fact and some developments may harm people.
                When it comes to the second point, at the heart of the matter lies another contributing factor: trust in the tech world continues to erode due to the  increase in the vulnerability to hacking and the proliferation of misinformation via Google and Facebook. Similarly, the discussion on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has mobilized civil society, scientists and policy-makers in a wide debate on ethics and safety. Request for transparency and the desire to be ethical are increasingly central to these debates. A serious hacking event has happened in the USA. The hacked folders included the personal data of about 50 million Americans  which was/has been harvested  via Facebook. This  was announced as ‘’a mistake’’ by Mark Zuckerberg, who is the founder and owner of Facebook. Zuckerberg has been criticized during  the investigation. But there is no obvious conclusion and explanation about both GMOs and the hacking event. Therefore, there is a wide debate about whether technology needs to be ethical.
                On the other hand, some proponents argue that there is no room for ethics; existing technology should create machines as intelligent as a human and use them in every area. According to them, these machines should be the most superior and intelligent species in the universe. However, these technologies may have devastating consequences/lead to a lot of serious problems for human beings: for example, (For example..) artificial intelligence might be uncontrolled or get out of control:  we saw/have seen  an apparent instance in the latest Facebook AI Experiment. After a few hours, it was turned off by Facebook because it got out of control and it created its own language.Therefore, Technology needs to be ethical and should  not be used  in every area like in the case of the Facebook AI Experiment and the Designer Baby Experiment.
                To summarize, whether technology needs to be ethical is a controversial issue. There are those who claim that  there is no room for ethics; and technology should create machines as intelligent as humans and use them in every area. However, it seems that technology needs to be ethical because new technological developments may harm people, and trust in the tech world continues to erode due to the increase in the vulnerability to hacking and the proliferation of misinformation.


Sunday, August 4, 2019


 Museums and art galleries should concentrate on local works rather than showing the cultures or artworks from other countries.  To what extent do you agree or disagree?

    Museums and art galleries have long been at the forefront of preserving and representing cultural values and histories of almost all countries throughout the centuries. However, whether they should mainly represent traditional and local cultures or display an international collection is open to dispute. I personally believe that traditional museums should focus on outlining the cultural aspects and artworks of the country while having separate museums with items from other countries does not hurt the national feeling.

    To begin with, educating people about the history and traditions of a country is one of the primary reasons why we have museums in the first place. They conserve important cultural specimens, artefacts, artworks and other items to boast about our past. Such museums, which primarily signify our tradition, should comprise things we, as a nation, can be proud of, rather than having internationally acclaimed artworks or sculptures. For instance, many national museums in Europe solely focus on preserving artefacts and artworks from the country only and they are quite popular among international tourists.

    Having said that, the concept of the museum in the modern era has changed to a great extent. We now have aviation museums, war memorials, motor museums, computer museums, archaeological museums and the list goes on. To make this type of museum popular and useful, we have to have international collections. For instance, the Motor Museum in Australia has a collection from more than 20 countries and they serve their purpose just fine. Museums with international compilation often attract tourists and can be a great way to promote tourism.

    To conclude, national and traditional museums should focus on nurturing national history while we also need museums with international collections to make them more functional and famous. One does not necessarily diminish the necessity and usefulness of another category.

Friday, July 19, 2019


With the rapid growth of technology, mankind has made various inventions and individuals' lives have become  easier. Technology has great advantages as well as some disadvantages, and the drawbacks may affect people's lives negatively. One of the threats is cybercrime. Even though digital connectivity is making our lives easier, the risk of cyber attacks is increasing as well, and governments and companies have to deal with the attacks. Personal and institutional information may be stolen and privacy may be violated. However,if the proper solutions are known and applied well, overcoming the problem will become easier.

First of all, there are many effective solutions and one of the most obvious ones is that people should be informed about cybercrimes via news, social media or seminars. In most cyber attacks, hackers capture the innocent's computer through malicious e-mails, various specific software like keylogger and ddos attacks. If people have the knowledge about cyber attacks, they are able to protect their private information and computers with the help of antivirus software. Moreover, if people use their technological devices  consciously, they won't connect to web sites which can be harmful ,and individuals will be careful when they are installing something on their computers. As a result, the possibility of coming face to face with cyber attacks will decrease.

In addition, another significant solution contributing to preventing cyber attacks is that institutions should think about backup. Most corporations may be hit by hackers for ransomware but if a backup system is there, they don't have to pay any money to hackers. Institutions have to have the necessary data about business to work properly and hackers want to keep companies under pressure to realize their desires. A backup system means copied data in at least 2 different places and institutions don't have to worry about the problem thanks to it.

Consequently, with the development of technology, cybercrime is becoming a widespread issue in the world, and it threatens many lives in terms of privacy violations and financial losses. Although, cyber attacks seem  unstoppable, if people are more conscious and informed well, and if  companies have backup systems, they won't have to struggle with cyber attacks.


Monday, July 8, 2019


The modern world is becoming an increasingly stressful place as the pace of life has reached epic proportions and people are always on the run. Everything needs to be finished yesterday and people are under continuous pressure to succeed. This relentless pace means that common courtesy and concern for others have fallen by the wayside. Nowhere is this more obvious than on public transport where the elderly stand while young people sit playing with their phones. There are various reasons why young people have become like this.
One reason for the apparent selfishness of the younger generation is the fact that everyone is living in their own little bubble thanks to modern technology. The more connected people become via technology, the more likely they are to shift their attention to the virtual world that they have started to inhabit. A lot of business and socialization takes place online, shopping is done online and education, to a large extent takes place online. Thus modern man inhabits two universes, the virtual one and the real world of his ancestors. Technology aids and abets the break from the real world and leaves young people turned in on themselves focused on their screens and their parallel world. With this kind of a mindset, they don’t even notice the elderly. The modern day zombies are too busy living a life the elderly are incapable of comprehending.
A second reason for young people’s seeming indifference to the plight of the elderly on vehicles of mass transit is the lack of social intelligence. The lack of quality contact with fellow human beings resulting from increased connectivity has also had a knock on effect on social intelligence. Social intelligence enables people to be more aware of their surroundings and to read situations correctly. Yet such a skill cannot develop without practice in real life situations and exposure to real life problems. The virtual world, the new reality of modern man, provides no opportunity to do this. The thus mentally impoverished young people fail to empathize with the elderly who have difficulty standing. They don’t sympathize with their plight and stare at them with blank eyes. In short, the upbringing the modern generation and the life they lead have lead them to lose some important social values.
To sum up, modern life and technological developments have made young people what they are. Understanding the source of the problem should enable us to address it as a community. What needs to be done is make children more aware of the real world and all that is happening around them. ‘Re-socialization’ is the key to making the world a better place.